HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT AND STAFF JOB PERFORMANCE IN NASARAWA STATE COLLEGE OF EDUCATION, AKWANGA BY Aminu, Abubakar Danladi

HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT AND STAFF JOB PERFORMANCE IN NASARAWA STATE COLLEGE OF EDUCATION, AKWANGA

BY

Aminu, Abubakar Danladi

Department of Educational Foundations

 Nasarawa State University Keffi, Nigeria

Email: aminuabubakardanladi@gmail.com, GSM: 070 6553 2264

 

Yakubu Ibrahim Agwada

Department of Educational Foundations

 Nasarawa State University Keffi, Nigeria

and

Prof. Maicibi Alhas Nok

Department of Educational Foundations

 Nasarawa State University Keffi, Nigeria

Abstract

The study adopted survey research design. The target population of this study consists of all the administrators and lecturers in all departments in Colleges of Education in Nasarawa State. These made up of a total of 1,421 staff in Colleges of Education in Nasarawa State. The sample for the investigation consists of 342 which comprises of 298 lecturers and 102 administrators were selected through stratified random sampling procedure.  In order to have an equal chance of being selected a sample size of 342 which representing 40% of sample to population. Human Resource Management and Staff Job Performance Questionnaire (HRMSJPQ) were structured by the researcher in obtaining relevant data for the study. The instrument used for data gathering was a structured questionnaire which was validated for the exercise. The researcher established logical validity index of 0.69 and reliability index of 0.83 yielded for obtaining the coefficient of internal consistency through Cronbach Alpha. The completed questionnaires were decoded into statistical data and analyzed using Pearson product moment correlation statistics for the hypotheses i-iii at the 0.05 level of significance. This was found suitable because the study explore relationship between human resource management and staff job performance. it is clearly seen that there should improving recruitment and selection and compensation in organisation. It was concluded that human resource management that improves staff job performance. Compensation is very important for the performance of the staff. Staff motivation is significant ingredient to excellent performance in students.  It was therefore recommended among others that   Government should always try as much as possible to pay staff salaries promptly and regularly and there should be workshops which should guide the management on the right factors that motivate staff for better performance and higher productivity.

            Key words: Human Resource Management, staff  Job performance

Introduction

Education is regarded as the catalyst for development as well as a process for bringing positive change in the society. In Nigeria, it is recognized as an instrument par excellence for effective national development (FRN, 2014). Education, no doubt, is the key to national development, thus, it is intended to serve the expressed goals and aspirations of the country as enshrined in the National Policy on Education. The role that education is expected to play in a society is multifaceted.   It is expected to build the character of the learner, to get him informed about what is worthwhile, acceptable to society, desirable and purposeful for himself, his environment and society.  It is also expected to make the individual worth living and worth living with (Tella, 2009). The invaluable roles and contributions of education in the development of an individual and the society cannot be over emphasized.

In the contemporary world today attention is focused on education as an instrument of launching nations into the world of science and technology and with consequential hope of human advancement, in terms of living conditions and development of the environment. This is because, in the life of any nation, education is the live-wire of its industries; it is the foundation of moral regeneration and revival of its people. Education is the bed-rock of any nation’s defense. Education is that process that helps to develop the whole man physically, mentally, socially and technologically to enable him to function effectively in any environment in which he may find himself (FRN, 2014). Therefore no nation can afford to pay lip service to the education of its people.

A nation’s human resources comprise men and women, young and old, who are actively engaged in the production of goods and services, and who are the greatest assets of the nation. This applies to any organisation whether public or private. Of the entire prerequisite for effective management of an organisation, the most vital is the human resource. Emphasising the importance of human resources, Harbison (2009) observed that human resources – not capital, not income or material resources – constitute the ultimate basis of the wealth of nations. Capital and natural resources are passive factors of production, human beings are the active agent who accumulate wealth, exploit material resources, build social, economic and political organisations, and carry forward national development. Clearly, a country which is unable to develop the skills and knowledge of its people, and to utilise them effectively in the national economy will be unable to develop anything else. The success of any type of organisation is it social, political, religious or economic depends to a large extent, on the human beings that make up the organisation.

Human Resource Management (HRM) is the process of managing people in an organization as well as managing the existing interpersonal relationships. These two processes are keys in the success and growth of organization. Human resource management is the management process of an organization’s workforce, or human resources. It is responsible for the attraction, selection, training, assessment, and rewarding of employees, while also overseeing organizational leadership and culture and ensuring compliance with employment and labor laws. The increasing pressures from the rapid changes that are occurring in the education industry have led to a variety of responses. Globalization of teaching and learning, the rate of technological innovation and increased demand for qualitative education among other factors has increased the dynamism of the competitive environment to which education industry must respond. For Nigeria education to survive global challenges in the 21st century, it needs to exploit all the available resources as a means of achieving competitive advantages. One resource recently recognized as providing a source for achieving competitive advantage is the human resources (Cole, 2005).

Human resource management has attracted enormous attention and has stimulated significant debate between academicians and practitioners. Much of the discussion has been around the meaning of human resource management, yet there is no single universally accepted definition of the concept. Much of these suggested definitions equate human resource management with personnel management, while others reflect altogether different concepts. However, the philosophies and practices of the latter concept provide fundamentals for the philosophy and practices of human resource management characteristically focuses on a range of activities relating to the supply and development of labour to meet the immediate and short-term needs of the organization (Cole, 2005). The activities of recruitment, training and development, performance appraisal, career development, compensation, staff participation and others are viewed as separate individual functions. Human Resource Management aimed to integrate all these personnel functions into a unified strategy. Furthermore, it deals with employees as individuals, by maintaining their personal files and job related activities, while on the other hand it considers the entire organization as a focal point for analysis (Edgar, 2005).

A major concern of school administrators and school service providers is student academic performance. This idea is supported by Hoy and Sabo (2008) when they observed that, schools with high student achievement have a strong internal press for academic excellence. Teachers and administrators set a tone that is serious, orderly, and focused on academics. Principals use their influence with superiors to get the necessary resources and support for the instructional program, teachers set reasonable academic goals for their students and go extra mile in helping them achieve, and students accept the importance of academics and work hard to be successful.

Human resources are inevitable in any organization. This is more so in an organization as a college of education with a structure that allows two or more units or groups to share functional boundaries in achieving its set objectives. In Colleges of Education, people with differing nature–students, lecturers and administrative staff- have to work harmoniously together. Hence, the organizational structure is such that staff and staff, students and students and staff and students share functional boundaries of exchange of knowledge. In carrying out these functions, there are always conflicts within and among the categories of people within the college community, namely students, academics, administrators, non-academics and their unions. The decision to study human resource management in the education sector (schools) is as a result of the recognition of its contribution to the sustained recovery and growth of the Nigerian economy and as the largest pool for skilled man-power development, training and supply which if not restructured towards high value added products and activities, may result in man power shortages. Given the importance of staff to the Nigerian educational growth and the lack of systematic human resource management practices in schools systems, it is imperative that immediate action be taken to examine human resource management and staff job performance on school overall success.

 

 

Statement of the Problem

Despite attempts by human resource managers in organisation to maintain effective and efficient policies and practices that could motivate staff in order to get their best on the job, current happenings have demonstrated that all is not well with the institution. Nasarawa State College of Education staff was faced with several problems, ranging from lack of adequate motivation to hardship and therefore could not put in their best. Staff has needs and desires for taking up appointments, which the human resource management has not been able to properly identify in order to harmonize them with its own objectives. There are problems of inadequate training and development, inaccurate performance appraisal system, lack of- career development, under-compensation and low staff participation in decision making in schools, poor motivation due to inadequate remuneration, poor teaching environment as a result of lack of basic teaching materials, listless and unmotivated learners in the classroom, among others, the teachers have become the endangered species in their own profession. Thus, it seems as teachers no longer teach and the students in turn no longer learn.

Many dedicated staff has admitted that the school human resources are either not motivated enough to perform, mismanaged or under- utilized simply because there is lack of sound human resource management practices that could improve performance. Poor human resource management does not only affect competencies and motivations of staff, but also their performance, and invariably, leading to poor results from the school. The thrust of this study was to examine relationship between human resource management and staff job performance in Nasarawa State College of Education, Akwanga.

Research Questions

In order to guide the study, the following research questions were raised:

  1. to what extent is the relationship between recruitment and staff job performance?
  2. to what extent is the relationship between compensation of staff and their job performance?
  • to what extent is the relationship between motivation of staff and their job performance?

 

1.5       Statement of the Hypotheses

In line with the research questions the following null hypotheses formulated for the study were tested at the 0.05 level of significance:

  1. There is no significant relationship between recruitment and staff job performance.
  2. There is no significant relationship between compensation of staff and job performance.
  • There is no significant relationship between motivation of staff and job performance

Overview of Human Resource Management

Human Resource Management can be said to be part of the role of every person who is responsible for the work of others. However, the Human
Resource Management approach implies a very broad meaning of “Personnel Management”. According to Akpakwu (2008), human resource management is the act of recruiting, retention and development of the people that work in
educational institutions. The Personnel and Industrial Relations defined human resource management as the process of developing, applying and evaluating policies, procedures, methods and programmes relating to the individuals in an
organization. This invariably highlighted the process of human resource
management as that of human development and process design. At the 1963 golden jubilee of the London Institute of Personnel Management, human resource management was described as the responsibility of those that manage people as well as the description of specialist in management. This recognition acknowledged that human resource management is a distinct function of management in a public or
private organization (Tahir, 2010).

Human Resource Management is that specialist function of management
which has the prime responsibility for the following: (a) Formulating, proposing and gaining acceptance for the personnel policies
and strategies of the organization, (b) Advising and guiding the organization’s managers on the implementation personnel policies and strategies, (c) Providing personnel services for the organizations to facilitate the recruitment, motivation and development of sufficient and suitable employees at all levels, (d) Advising the organization’s managers of the human consequences of change.

A number of studies have been carried out by various researchers that are related to the human resource management and staff job performance. One of such studies was carried out by Ahmad and Hassan (2015) founds that training and empowerment of the workers contributes more in employees’ work performance and their job satisfaction than that of rewards/incentives while Mohammad, Osman and Hamzah (2014) indicated that recruitment and selection and compensation significantly correlated with the employee performance while Adeyinka, Asabin and Adedotun (2013) showed that teachers and other school workers tend to remain contented and reasonably motivated as long as salaries are paid on time and they are promoted regularly. Meindinyo and Ikurite (2017) revealed that applying the right motivation factor has positive influence on teachers’ performance. Abdul Hameed, Ramzan, Zubair, Ali and Muhammad (2014) showed that Compensation has positive impact on employee performance. From the past several studies reviewed, it was revealed that much has been done on human resource management and staff job performance; the design that was used for the was Ex-post facto and survey design, purposively sampling technique and One-way ANOVA was used to test the hypotheses .  Thus, in all the studies, there was no emphasis on the human resource management and staff job performance in Nasarawa College of Education, Akwanga using correlation and Pearson product moment correlation statistics and considering recruitment, compensation motivation of staff and job performance. This is therefore, the gap this study intends to fill.

Methodology

The study adopted survey research design. The target population of this study consists of all the administrators and lecturers in all departments in Colleges of Education in Nasarawa State. These made up of a total of 1,421 staff in Colleges of Education in Nasarawa State. The sample for the investigation consists of 342 which comprises of 298 lecturers and 102 administrators were selected through stratified random sampling procedure.  In order to have an equal chance of being selected a sample size of 342 which representing 40% of sample to population. Human Resource Management and Staff Job Performance Questionnaire (HRMSJPQ) were structured by the researcher in obtaining relevant data for the study. The instrument used for data gathering was a structured questionnaire which was validated for the exercise. The researcher established logical validity index of 0.69 and reliability index of 0.83 yielded for obtaining the coefficient of internal consistency through Cronbach Alpha. The completed questionnaires were decoded into statistical data and analyzed using Pearson product moment correlation statistics for the hypotheses i-iii at the 0.05 level of significance. All analyses would be done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS Version 17).

Results     

Research Question i: what is the relationship between recruitment of staff and their job performance?

Hypothesis 1: There is no significant relationship between recruitment and staff job performance.

To determine the degree of relationship that exists between recruitment of staff and their job performance, the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient was to provide answers to research question, while the coefficient of determination (r2) indicates the percentage of variation in the staff job performance that is explained by the recruitment. Also to test this null hypothesis, the data were collected and related to obtain correlation coefficient (r) to establish the significance level. The results obtained are shown in Table 1.

Table 1: Correlation Coefficient for Relationship between Recruitment and staff job performance

 

S/N Variables                   Count rcal. r2 rtab. Remark
1 Recruitment                   342
2 Staff  job performance 0.75 0.56 0.087 Significant

Table 1 shows the correlation coefficient for relationship between recruitment of staff and job performance. It is evident that there is a strong positive correlation between recruitment of staff and their job performance represented by 0.75. Apparently, the coefficient of determination represented by 0.56 indicates that about 56% of the variations in recruitment is explained by changes in staff job performance. The critical value of ‘r’ at the 0.05 level of significance was 0.087, since the calculated value is greater than the table value, the null hypothesis is therefore rejected. Hence, there is significant relationship between recruitment and staff job performance.

Research Question ii: what is the relationship between compensation of staff and their job performance?

Hypothesis 2: There is no significant relationship between compensation and staff job performance.

To test this null hypothesis, the data were collected and related to obtain correlation coefficient (r) to establish the significance level. The results obtained are shown in Table 2.

Table 2: Correlation Coefficient for Relationship between compensation and staff job performance

 

S/N Variables                        Count rcal. r2 rtab. Remark
1 Compensation                  342
2 Staff  job performance 0.98 0.96 0.087 Significant

Table 2 shows the correlation coefficient for relationship between compensation of staff and job performance. It is evident that there is a strong positive correlation between compensation of staff and their job performance represented by 0.98. Apparently, the coefficient of determination represented by 0.96 indicates that about 96% of the variations in compensation is explained by changes in staff job performance. The critical value of ‘r’ at the 0.05 level of significance was 0.087, since the calculated value is greater than the table value, the null hypothesis is therefore rejected. Hence, there is significant relationship between compensation and staff job performance.

Research Question iii: what is the relationship between motivation of staff and their job performance?

Hypothesis 3: There is no significant relationship between motivation of staff and job performance.

To test this null hypothesis, the data were collected and related to obtain correlation coefficient (r) to establish the significance level. The results obtained are shown in Table 3.

Table 3: Correlation Coefficient for Relationship between motivation and staff job performance

S/N Variables                       Count rcal. r2 rtab. Remark
1 Motivation                      342
2 Staff job performance 0.95 0.90 0.087 Significant

Table 3 shows the correlation coefficient for relationship between motivation of staff and job performance. It is evident that there is a strong positive correlation between recruitment of staff and their job performance represented by 0.95. Apparently, the coefficient of determination represented by 0.90 indicates that about 90% of the variations in motivation is explained by changes in staff job performance. The critical value of ‘r’ at the 0.05 level of significance was 0.087, since the calculated value is greater than the table value, the null hypothesis is therefore rejected. Hence, there is significant relationship between motivation and staff job performance.

            Discussion of Findings

Findings based on Hypothesis 1 indicated that significant relationship between recruitment and staff job performance exited. This finding is in agreement with the findings of Mohammad, Osman and Hamzah (2014) which examined the effect of human resource management practices towards employee performance in Malaysian skills institute (MIS). It investigated the factors that affection recruitment and selection, compensation toward employee performance in MIS. The study population, which consisted of employees in the MIS, comprised 40 respondents. To achieve the study objectives, the research developed a questionnaire, and collected and analyzed the data using SPSS. An overall analysis was performed based on the descriptive statistics and correlation analysis. The results indicated that recruitment and selection and compensation significantly correlated with the employee performance.

Findings based on hypothesis 2 indicated that there is significant relationship between compensation of staff and job performance This finding is in agreement with the findings of Abdul Hameed, Ramzan,  Zubair, Ali and Muhammad (2014) who conducted a study on impact of Compensation on Employee Performance from Banking Sector of  Pakistan and   founded from different results that Compensation has positive impact on employee performance.

Another finding indicated that there is significant relationship between motivation of staff and job performance. This finding is in agreement with the findings of Meindinyo and Ikurite (2017) who revealed that applying the right motivation factor has positive influence on teachers’ performance. In addition, the findings are similar to that reported by Adeyinka, Asabin and Adedotun (2013) who found that teachers and other school workers tend to remain contented and reasonably motivated as long as salaries are paid on time and they are promoted regularly. Payment of salaries, allowances and promotion as the key factors that shape teacher attitudes towards their work was identified.

 

Conclusion and Recommendations

In view of the findings of this study, the   following conclusions were drawn: From the above results, it is clearly seen that there should improving recruitment and selection and compensation in organisation. The study has contributed in the area of the human resource management that improves staff job performance. Compensation is very important for the performance of the staff. Staff motivation is significant ingredient to excellent performance in students.

 

Based on the findings and conclusion, following recommendations are made:

  1. Management of college should make use of correct motivational strategies such as attitude motivation, incentives, and recognition. There should be regular training for staff workshops to motivate staff for higher productivity.
  2. Government should always try as much as possible to pay staff salaries promptly and regularly.
  • There should be workshops which should guide the management on the right factors that motivate staff for better performance and higher productivity.

 

 

 

 

REFERENCES

 

Abdul Hameed, M, Ramzan, M,  Zubair, M,Ali, G & Muhammad , A(2014). Impact of Compensation on Employee Performance (Empirical Evidence fromBanking Sector of Pakistan). International Journal of Business and Social Science Vol. 5 (2).

 

Adeyinka, S. Asabin, R. & Adedotem, B. (2013) Perspectives of effective leadership.         Ileife-Ife: Olu Print Ife.

 

Ahmad & Hassan, (2015). Impact of Human Resource (HR) practice on employees’ Satisfaction and performance through mediating role of employees’ engagement.

Akpakwu, O.S. (2008). Essentials of Educational Management: Makurdi: Jalim Press Ltd.

Cole, G.A (2005). Personnel and human management (8th ed). London. Education low price         sponsored text.

Edgar, F. (2005). Human resource management practices.

Edgar, F.& Geare, A. (2006). ‘Employment Relationships: Ideology and HRM practice,’ International journal of Human Resource Management, 17, 1190-1208.

Federal Government of Nigeria (FGN), 2004. National Policy on Education. (Revised)     Yaba. NERC Press.

Hoy, N.K. & Sabo, C.G. (2008). Educational Administration: Theory, Research and          Practice. (2nd Edition). New York: Randam House.

 

Meindinyo, R.. O. K & Ikurite, N. (2017). Influence of motivation on Teachers performance in A Local Government Area in Nigeria. IOSR Journal of humanities and Social Science Vol.22(22-28.

 

`           Mohammed, Osman & Hamzah (2014). The effect of human resource management practices towards employee performance in Malaysian skill institute (MIS).

Tahir, I. (2010). “Impact of Human Resource Management Practices on Organizational Performance: A Mediating Role of Employees’ Performance in Malaysia”.

Tella, W.M. (2009). Teacher professionalism in local school contexts. Americal Journal of Educatiion.123-153.

 

 

 



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